Archives

Issue 34/2009

Table of contents

Contemporary problems in Aesthetics

  1. Iwona Lorenc, Wprowadzenie do panelu
  2. Krystyna Wilkoszewska, Wspólnota doświadczenia
  3. Grzegorz Dziamski, Sztuka czasów globalizacji
  4. Ewa Rewers, Zamiast twórczości: inwencja
  5. Anna Grzegorczyk, Zmęczenie estetyki – powrót do źródłowości
  6. Teresa Pękala, Tradycja i innowacja w estetyce polskiej
  7. Iwona Lorenc, O estetyce relacjonalnej
  8. Anna Wolińska, Teraz: doświadczenie estetyczne
  9. Katarzyna Sobczyk, O aktualności ironii

Image – paintings, film, photography

  1. Anna Szyjkowska, Intermediality as an artificial structure for eliciting meaning – on the example of B. Bertolucci’s “Last Tango in Paris“ and the paintings of Francis Bacon
  2. Aleksandra Hirszfeld, Five obstructions as five disguised repetitions: Lars von Trier’s creative actions laboratory
  3. Magdalena Sztrzałkowska, The Matter of Revealing Photography. Alfred Ligocki’s contribution to so-called “critical arts”

Discussions

  1. Iwona L. Malec, A discussion on E. Véron’s Aesthetics

Abstracts in English

  1. Anna Szyjkowska, Intermediality as an artificial structure for eliciting meaning – on the example of B. Bertolucci’s „Last Tango in Paris“ and the paintings of Francis Bacon
  2. Aleksandra Hirszfeld, Five obstructions as five disguised repetitions: Lars von Trier’s creative actions laboratory
  3. Magdalena Sztrzałkowska, The Matter of Revealing Photography. Alfred Ligocki’s contribution to so-called „critical arts”

Anna Szyjkowska, Intermediality as an artificial structure for eliciting meaning – on the example of B. Bertolucci’s “Last Tango in Paris“ and the paintings of Francis Bacon.

The present article poses the question concerning the possible consequences of transposing paintings into an intermedial structure. It purports that this transposition enables the transgression of the distance between the painting and the spectator, and that it leads to a blured border between fiction and reality by placing one medium within another. The problem of the relations between body, space and image is presented. In confronting the intermedial structure, the viewer becomes grasped by the picture, as space becomes arbitrary and relative.

The analysis of this intermediality is based on the example of Francis Bacon‘s paintings and Bernardo Bertolucci’s film „Last Tango in Paris“. The artificial structure appears as an important tool in both Bacon‘s paintings and Bertolucci‘s film. The intermedial technique used by Bertolucci somewhat takes Bacon‘s advice to make use of artificial structure in the process of grasping reality, while simultaneously opening the realm of fiction. The problem of body and space is also present in the domain of intermedial relation. This phenomenon shows and highlights the condition of the subject, who becomes lost in reality.

Aleksandra Hirszfeld, Five obstructions as five disguised repetitions: Lars von Trier’s creative actions laboratory

Lars von Trier is known as an artist searching for new cinematic forms, often mixing “genres”  and using given elements or rules in non-conventional ways. In my text I try to reveal and describe particular figures of repetition, operating as an important strategy on different levels of von Trier’s film-work. I am also truing to explain, more generally, the role of these figures in Lars von Trier’s artistic method.

My main example is Five Obstructions – one of the most interesting remakes ever done (this re-making itself being the first figure of repetition to analyze). Five Obstructions, a variation-iteration of Jorgen Leth’s: The Perfect Human (Det Perfekte Menneske, 1967), is a piece of art composed of five film-repetitions, each of them submitted to a different set of restrictions.

Another figure of repetition – even more important from the analytical point of view, directly concerning the theoretical question I am discussing – refers to the formal construction of a particular film-genre, i.e. the “document”. It consists in extending the very limits of this genre, in modifying both its nature and function. I do not mean a simple repetition of a documentary “scheme”; in this particular document the function of the genre itself becomes a subject of double or even triple repetition. On the one hand, just as every “normal” document, it refers to what has “happened”, and thus in a certain way repeats the “initial” event (being itself a process of re-making, the repeating of a film by a famous Danish film documentalist (sic!)). On the other hand, it visualizes (although not directly), documents the basic technique of Lars von Trier’s way of making movies.  It reveals and repeats Lars von Trier’s creative actions’ laboratory on the screen.

In my interpretation of von Trier’s Five Obstructions I am using several concepts introduced by Gilles Deleuze in Difference and repetition and How Do We Recognize structuralism? Making explicit the hidden structures and production of difference through repetition – these are definitely the basic artistic strategies of the father of “Dogma”. Most useful for understanding von Trier is the Deleuzian concepts of “bare” and “disguised” repetition, “differential relations”,  “singularities” (or: singular points) , “object = x”, and the “empty square”. I am truing to explain their philosophical meaning and to make it operational for film-analysis. The Five obstructions then appear as a work of art that “embodies” directly the idea of disguised repetition, as an auto-referential film bringing to light the very mechanisms of artistic creation, the inner organization of von Trier’s laboratory. Creating new ways and forms of expression in cinema, forcing the limits of given genres – all this would never be possible without the “genius” of von Trier, but likewise it would be unattainable without a certain “structuralist” tendency, his capacity to “dig down” to structural, formal relations.

Małgorzata Strzałkowska, The Matter of Revealing Photography. Alfred Ligocki’s contribution to so-called „critical arts”

The article presents Alfred Ligocki ideas of revealing photography which can be placed in the „critical arts” trend.

Ligocki as an art critic quests photography which reveals Reality hidden under coats of stereotypes, patterns and banalities. In his depiction photography wants „something more”, and compare with ordinary photography perspective and this banal reality appears as a danger.

Ligocki believes that no other medium because of power of its documentation and authentication does not possesses so strength of persuasion as photographic medium. The critic considers that the realism of camera is particularly adapted to recognizing function of works of art understanding not as sociological and scientific sense but as conscious attitude towards reality.

Ligocki is a real humanist and searches the connection between the art and real life. He encourages to treat the camera realism as people conversation, these people which join distrust to obvious matters and sensibility to people problems.

Ligocki’s vision of “revealing photography” relies on treating it as challenge and at the same time not forgetting about the moral aspect of any creative activity.

Intermediality as an artificial structure for eliciting meaning – on the example of B. Bertolucci’s „Last Tango in Paris“ and the paintings of Francis Bacon

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